e.9 – THE MOST RELEVANT OUTDOOR DISCIPLINES

N.B.: the names of the disciplines are in most cases neologisms used according to FISSS denomination and meaning; an overview is due to make these denominations homogeneous at international level.

ECO-DISCIPLINES

Bird & Wildlife Watching: observation of the fauna and photo safaris
Caving: aka Spelunking is the exploration of caves and caverns, sports spelaeology
Depriving: Outdoor activities of various kinds with extreme limitations in gear and equipment, for instance bare-foot; aka as Downsizing in social practices.
Eco-Campus: aka Outdoor Campus, it involves games and trainings in natural locations, outfitted for various recreational and formative activities
Eco-Running: time-checked run and/or march with identification of natural features on the course
Eco-Ultra-Marathon: marathons on ultra-canonical distances in non-anthropic or protected environments
Gold-panning: sports gold search in rivers and streams with hand tools and pans
GPS Drawing: an itinerary on foot or a boat with satellite positioning instruments with the goal to draw creative maps
Hiking: on foot, in autonomy or with a guide
Hunting & Fishing: for sports only and if eco-compatible and practiced in non protected areas
Mountaineering: climbing natural cliffs, included via ferrata
Picking: searching and gathering edible wild plants, fruits and mushrooms (bush food)
Scouting: reconnaissance and exploration for the youth (scouts or others) with educational, recreational, research aim.
Snorkelling: coast and deep-sea excursions, swimming, with mask and snorkel only, to visit the seabed in apnoea
Snowshoeing: hiking on snow-fields with snowshoes or special footwear
Survival: voluntary experimentations to survive in extreme environments or situations by any means
Tracking: aka Wandering, consists in a random search and identification of animal tracks and footprints
Tree Climbing: aka Acrobranche, is to be practiced with minimum dedicated gear
Trekking: long range hiking, in autonomy and by means apt to the various environments

TRANS-DISCIPLINES

Adventure Park: aka Dendroclimbing, is practiced by outfitted via ferrata on trees, with special equipment
Bushcraft: all useful activities to survive into the wild (mainly forests) with equipment dedicated to different tasks
Living Prehistory: simulations of archaic life and re-construction of utensils, weapons and shelters in dedicated sites (aka Experimental Archaeology)
Orienteering: running and orienting with dedicated compass & map on an outfitted course
Soft-Air: aka as Paint Ball, it simulates war & combat games with non-harmful air weapons
Spartan Race: aka Crossfit or Parkour, consists in running on military-style obstacle courses, in outfitted environments, or in urban acrobatic three dimensional spaces
Survival Race: a brief hike or run on a natural or artificial obstacle race-course with itinerant problem-solving activities
Surviving: simulations of Survival in no-risk situations and courses, or locations dedicated to training and sports

MONO-DISCIPLINES

Animal Round: aka Hunter & Field is a simulated hunt with bow and arrows on courses outfitted with 3D visuals too
Canoeing-Kayaking: sea/ lake crossing or river/stream descent with paddle floating crafts
Canyoning: descent of gorges, ravines and gullies or ascent of streams with mountaineering gear
Cliff-Diving: extreme plunges from natural cliffs at least 30 m high
Mountain Racing: time-checked ascent over significant climb levels
Downhill Biking: extremely steep descent with special bikes, on suitable tracks or paths
Free-Climbing & Ice-Climbing: secure sports on natural, artificial or iced cliffs
Hydro-Speeding: aka Shock-wave, is the descent of streams with a floating device or swimming with various means
Mountain-Biking: aka Cross Country, consists in off-road hikes with MTB, in autonomy
Mountain Fitness: march or run up/downhill monitoring time and caloric expenditure
Mountain Running: climbing and crossing over a number of peaks on long extreme courses
Mud Running: racing through extremely wet terrain
Nordik Walking: a march over variable terrain with special walking sticks
Paragliding: free-flight over ridges and hillsides with special governable chutes
Rafting: descent in torrents or river rapids by inflatable boats with more than one rower
Roving Archery: itinerant, with variable rules and natural targets, improvised on site
Ski-Mounteneering: mountain off-piste ski-trekking
Sky Running: race, time checked, over peaks with at least a 1000 m drop
Sleddog: excursions and raids on dog-pulled sleds
Throwing: throws by weapons or throwing devices, like javelin, boomerang, stick, slingshot, catapult, in natural locations

MULTI-DISCIPLINES

Raiding: long-range multi-disciplinary competitions in extreme environments and in partial or total autonomy
Ski-Arc: itinerant archery with skis (all kinds)
Ski-Orienteering: winter variation of Orienteering games with skis, compass and map
Survival Decathlon: contest for sports survivalists involved in 10 disciplines useful for surviving
Triathlon: aka Ironman, is a competition for super-athletes in a 42 km marathon, a 3.86 km swim and a 180 km bike race
BORDERLINE OUTDOOR DISCILPINES
(they may lack autonomy and/or adventure and/or eco-compatibility)

Off-road Cars and Motorbikes: on dirt-tracks
Base-Jumping: specialised parachuting from steep cliffs, bridges or skyscrapers
Bungee-Jumping: dive jumping with feet bound and harnessed in elastic ropes
Extreme Skiing: off-piste freestyle
Fitwalking & Jogging: healthy strolls or runs
Kite-Surfing: braving sea waves or snow-clad expanses with a kite-towed board
Hang-Gliding: with or without an engine
Sailing: coast or deep-sea navigation
Slack Line & Rope Walking: tightrope activity on horizontal cables or ribbons
Skate- & Snow-Boarding: with roller or slipping devices
Sky-Diving: sporting, extreme or acrobatic
Surf & Windsurf: braving waves on boards (even with a sail)
Underwater Sports: scuba and tank diving, with breathing apparatus
Zorbing: rolling downhill inside a transparent plastic sphere

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