E.4.2 – FISSS CRITERIA & RULES FOR PATENT ISSUE & LEVEL UPGRADING

FISSS CRITERIA & RULES FOR PATENT ISSUE & LEVEL UPGRADING

The FISSS organises training courses and examining sessions for candidate Operators and Instructors in Survival & Outdoor by its Schools and Consociates, issues Europe-valid patents and certificates and keeps Category Registers with a fee-rate tariff table for each activity. Only the FISSS Secretary, previously informed, is qualified to issue patens and badges, while Federal Schools deliver certificates in the Federation’s format. All federal Consociates with a School Training Ground or an apt location should promote courses and host the Instructors, qualified for managing and training their activities.
GRADE A PATENT – Operator & Assistant
All candidates to Federal Grade A1 (Operator) and A2 (Assistant Instructor) Patents must meet the qualifications for admission, being learnt in 2nd and 3rd level knowledge and be prepared at least in the general matters (see below). A1 and A2 Patents may be only issued through a Federal Association or School, organising a Basic course or a qualifying Contest of at least 40 hours per each level (plus a training stage for a minimum of 80 hours if upgrading a candidate to Assistant) managed by an Expert or Master Instructor, helped by at least another Federal Instructor (any level) and by the legal representative of the School.
These requisites qualify to the cooperation and assistance by Instructors that are holding courses in FISSS centres and schools.
GRADE B PATENT – Basic Instructor
The Grade A2 patent (3rd level) Assistant who, after a year of collaboration in a Federal School, intends to be a candidate to Basic Grade B Patent (4th level), has either to attend an Advanced course and follow the necessary training c/o a Federal School, tutored by an Instructor of at least 6th level (Advanced Expert), or to have previously attended one or more Federal Advanced courses of at least 40 hours in total, and followed a training of at least 80 hours in FISSS courses (see below for required knowledge)
This Basic Grade B Patent (4th level) qualifies to hold Survival & Outdoor Preliminary or initiation courses in FISSS schools and centres and to issue certificates and badges (if the case) to candidates to Supporter 1st level only with a course of at least 20 hours.

GRADE C1 PATENT – Expert Instructor
In order to reach the next 5th level and be issued the Grade C1 patent (Expert), a Basic Instructor, after at least a year of activity in Preliminary courses, must at least participate in one training-evaluation-qualification Testage and be introduced to the Examining Board by a tutor (an Expert, Advanced or Master Instructor). The board meets at least yearly and is made up by a minimum of two FISSS Executive members and two Master Instructors, plus candidates’ tutors (promotion or postponement are to be decided upon with a majority decision).
This Grade C1 Patent (5th level) qualifies to hold even Outdoor & Survival Basic courses with training sessions. The Basic courses, of at least 40 consecutive hours, may be qualifying up to 3rd level (Assistant) only if they are held in FISSS centres with the co-presence of at least one other Federal Instructor (any level) and the referral Centre manager or one of his/her FISSS qualified deputy assistants.

GRADE C2 PATENT – Advanced Expert Instructor
In order to obtain the Grade C2 Patent of Advanced Expert (6th level), an Expert Instructor (5th level) shall follow the same procedure as for the preceding Grade C1 Patent, but must have at least two years of experience as an operative manager of FISSS Basic courses and be introduced to the Examination Board by a Master grade tutor.
This C2 Patent (6th level) qualifies to hold even Advanced courses for up to Basic Instructor (4th level) upgrading in a Federal School or centre, with the co-presence of at least two other FISSS Instructors. The Advanced Experts may participate in the examining board and/or may tutor candidates to Expert Grade C1 patent (5th level).

GRADE D1 PATENT – Master Instructor
In order to obtain the Master Grade D1 Patent (7th level), an Advanced Expert Instructor should be over 33 years old, be an operative FISSS Instructor for at least 6 years, have assisted his tutor, a Master Advanced Instructor (8th level), during a time decided upon by the tutor him/herself, and hold the necessary qualifications for European EQF standards. After submitting an application to the FISSS Executive Board, the candidate has to pass, in an appropriate location, a competition test in total autonomy; during the test, the candidate shall display his/her knowledge-abilities-competence and hold two lessons (one at his/her choice and another about a subject decided upon by the Examination Board, in this case made up of the FISSS Executive majority and at least three Advanced Master Instructors (8th level), the candidate’s tutor included).
This Patent qualifies to hold all kinds of Outdoor Training Federal courses, even professional, for corporate executives and public institutions personnel (security officers, military etc.); this patent holder is an officio member of the FISSS Examining and Training Board, and may tutor candidates up to the 6th level (Advanced Expert) and be a Federation’s representative in national meetings and lectures by President’s appointment.

GRADE D2 PATENT – Advanced Master Instructor
After at least two more years of experience as an operative 7th level Instructor and/or involvement in the Federal Executive Board’s internal commissions, a highly qualified (according to European EQF standards) Master Instructor may submit to the FISSS Executive Board a request for an advancement to Advanced Master Grade (8th level); the Board, after receiving the opinions of all 8th level Masters, decides upon advancement or rejection.
This patent qualifies to hold Professional courses, Outdoor Training courses and Clinics for private and public institutions even abroad, and to hold managing or representing office in the FISSS Executive Board’s internal commissions.

To be qualified as FISSS OPERATIVE INSTRUCTORS and FEDERATION’s ASSOCIATE MEMBERS it is compulsory to have the European EURETHICS-ETSIA Patent, with international insurance, and be up to date with social fee payments. The European Patent may be facultative only for Supporters, Operators and Assistants or NON-operative Instructors. FISSS Instructors may not be partners in any other Survival organisation; if they leave the Federation, they lose all acquired right and qualifications, included the possibility to renew and validate their European Patents. For reintegration (if accepted), a written request shall be forwarded to the Executive Board; after a verification testage, it shall be decided the confirmation or downgrading of the applicant’s level according to the Examination Commission’s decision.

EXCEPTIONAL PROMOTIONS may anticipate the fixed time for the various level upgrading or change their modalities, but are only possible by a FISSS Board’s specific deliberation and only in case of acknowledged and verified competences of particular candidates, already professionals in the Survival & Outdoor sector.

To obtain the ANNUAL RENEWAL OF PATENTS, all FISSS Instructors, Assistants and Operators shall pay the appropriate fee by the first month of the year and must have been participating to at least one Federal initiative or Testage in the last 2 years; otherwise his/her patent shall be in stand-by, invalid until all obligations be complied. After one year of default, suspension, downgrading or disbarment from FISSS registers are contemplated.
N.B.: Operative Instructors with an EU Patent are required to be in at least a Testage per year.

DOWNGRADING & SUSPENSION. Following evidence-based warnings by Executive FISSS members or Consociates’ managers, after verification and opinion by the Ethics Commission and the Arbitrators, the FISSS Board has the power to sanction, suspend and expel those Instructors who gravely disobey these Regulations or the Federal Code of Ethics or that loose over time their skills and knowledge, or desert Federal meeting for more than two years.

AREAS OF APPLICATION FOR FISSS INSTRUCTORS’ PATENTS: notwithstanding it represents per se a valid qualification for free-time operators that lead Outdoor activities, the Federal Patent is considered indispensable to hold throughout the world FISSS endorsed courses and those organised by its Associates and Schools, complying with the programmes and norms of these regulations. The Patent’s holder is therefore endorsed with credentials for the national Federal Schools, but may also use his/her title with foreign institutions and organisations, FISSS being an European level Institution, holding a Survival & Outdoor Operators’ Register that deals with their training and upgrading, ascertaining their professional levels.

THE OPERATORS’, ASSISTANTS’ AND INSTRUCTORS’ REGISTERS report the concerned persons’ data, their addresses, level qualifications and the dates of their adhesion to the FISSS (written in their Patent). To the entry “Specialized Qualifications”, the Register reports accreditations and certificates from competent institutions (Federations, Universities, Associations etc.), issued to the concerned member for disciplines or professions relevant for or complementary to Survival (see below).

OFFICIAL TRAINING TEXTBOOKS FOR FISSS INSTRUCTORS CORRELATED TO LEVELS

For A Patents: Maolucci E and Salza A, Dati per vivi (‘Presumed Alive’), Federal Manual for all Associates, available c/o FISSS Administration (Commercially published as Surviving, Hoepli 2010, revised 2017).
For B Patents: Maolucci E, Dalla Palma M and Salza A, Outdoor. Pensare, agire, sopravvivere (‘Outdoor. Think, Act, Survive’), Hoepli 2010; Mears R, Manuale pratico di sopravvivenza (The Survival Handbook, 1990), Edizioni Gremese 1991.

For C Patents: Mercanti A, Manuale del Trapper (‘The Trapper’s Manual’), Longanesi 1976; VV AA, Manuale della Croce Rossa Italiana (‘Italian Red Cross Manual’), official issue 2016.
For D Patents: Gonzales L, Le regole dell’avventura (Deep Survival, 2003), Corbaccio 2004; Trabucchi P, Resisto, dunque sono (‘I resist, therefore I am’), Corbaccio 2009; Nannini F, Mental Survival, Hoepli 2016; Maolucci E and Salza A, Prepping, Hoepli 2016


ADMISSION & KNOWLEDGE REQUIREMENTS FOR CANDIDATES TO GRADE A PATENTS (2ND AND 3RD EQF LEVELS) OPERATORS & ASSISTANTS

01. Full civil and political rights (valid passport or other probative document or legal self-declaration).
02. Sound mind and body, with resistance, dexterity, handicraft and stress tolerance.
03. A minimum of experience in Outdoor practices and no phobias or invalidating pathologies.
04. Skills in communication, group and independent work, problem management and anxiety control.
05. Good aquatics and sufficient swimming ability, even in apnoea.
06. Fair knowledge of elementary Outdoor terminology (even in English).
07. Valid driving licence, basic first aid knowledge, self-defence basics, awareness about civil and criminal legal liability.
08. Practice in knots and elementary rope manoeuvres, notions of hiking and orienteering, with or without compass.
09 Sufficient preparation or attitude in at least half of the FISSS ability & specialty disciplines (see above). 10 Knowledge about FISSS institutional mandates, of the Federal manual and general principles of Outdoor & Survival.


DISCIPLINARY KNOW-HOW REQUIRED FOR FISSS GRADE B (BASIC) – C (EXPERT) – D (MASTER) PATENT HOLDERS

1. Basics to Training & Formation and Survival Fundamental Techniques
2. Hiking, Orienteering and Ropeing
3. Throwing Techniques with Simple Tools
4. Swimming and Scuba Diving

GRADE B PATENT (Basic Instructor)
1. Equipment & Outfitting theory; Survival kit; individual and group preservation techniques – Communication and Knowledge Transfer abilities about the principles of real, sports and experimental survival – Proficiency about the relevant official textbooks – Fire Starting by friction/percussion (bow, flint & steel etc.) and modern techniques (lens, meth, magnesium etc.) – Shelter building in various environments and meteo conditions (cold, snow, gale, rain, heat).
2. Orientation with and without compass for visual land navigation, plus cartographic notions – Practice in vertical and horizontal rope use – balance bridges and eco-dynamic-outfitted grounds – specific knots for positioning and using ropes – Prusik Ascent and Rappelling – Tree Climbing – Competence in Outfitting maintenance.
3. Hitting of targets at Commission’s discretion (from 5 to 20 m) with all relevant tools: bow, javelin (with or without atlatl), simple tool for rotating throws (stick, boomerang, sling, other), blow tool (blowtube) or elastic operated tool (catapult).
4. Good aquatics and swimming skills.

GRADE C PATENT (Expert Instructor)
1. Tool and Primitive Weapon making (choppers, cutters, scrapers, points, throwing sets, piercers, needles etc.) – Making of ropes, cables and nets (knotting, plaiting, twisting, weaving) – Measures, Weights, Distances and Anthropometry – Nutrition and Food Resources acquirement (hunting and fishing strategies, food preservation, competence about edible plants and animals) – Water Procurement (search, find, dig, purify, distil, transport) – Nutrition & Medical basics (food nutritional values, metabolism and energy requirements, self-protection and preservation by medicinal plants and herbs and/or medicines) – Theory & Practice in First Aid and Emergency Protocols – Self-defence and group protection in Urban Survival (Prepping) – Communication and Leadership skills, adequate lexicon and proficiency about the relevant official textbooks – Training course in group management and leadership – Degree or High School Certificate – Knowledge and experience in various and extreme natural Environments – Base camp planning and erection.
2. Course for works in heights and/or retrieval, rescue and safety license issued by authorised institutions – Practice of Orienteering with compass and GPS – Cartography and Meteorology – Practice of Trekking and Progression on all terrains and by all means – Practice of Harnessing & Climbing techniques – Safety systems and Retrieval in heights – off-road Driving with bicycles and motor vehicles – Competence in hiking activities and selection of appropriate equipment (individual and group’s – Experience of First Aid and Emergency protocols (Red Cross-BLS Course, Pharmacology, sufficient knowledge in Anatomy and Medicine); Practice of SOS surface-to-air international-coded Signals by all means.
3. Use skill and maintenance practice for all throwing tools in the FISSS Regulations, plus knowledge of the security standards and rules, specific for all practices.
4. Competence in Scuba free-diving.

GRADE D PATENT (Master Instructor)
1. Active & passive self-defence (individual and group’s) and fair technical knowledge of main weapons (primitive and fire-operated) – Camouflage, Escape, Intercept, Prevention, Attack – Problem solving; Behaviour dynamics; Leadership and Cooperation – Stress, fears and phobias Control – Mission Logistics, Outfitting and Management – Psychology, Sociology and behaviour Economy – Notions in Geology, Botany, Zoology, human, plant and animal Ecology, Ethology – Tracking in main ecosystems – Proficiency in suggested official textbooks – Manufacture of clothing and containers (tanning of hides, vegetal, animal, synthetic fibre treatment) – Basics and techniques of stone Flaking and Polishing – Carpentry practice – Bushcraft – Shelter planning and erecting with natural materials; Experiences in non-European alien and extreme environments (Jungle, Desert, Savannah, Tundra, Arctic etc.).
2. Practice of all the relevant Gear (for any location and field-work) and assembly techniques for ropes, cables, fixing, hauling, outfitting in safety & recovery for Training Grounds and Adventure Parks.
3. Construction skills for all the tools (with natural materials or salvaged artificial parts) mentioned in this document.
4. Competence in Scuba tank-diving
SPECIALITY TITLES, PERTINENT OR COMPLEMENTARY, ELIGIBLE FOR FISSS REGISTERING
Useful for EQF upgrading and the European FISSS-Eurethics-ETSIA Patents

Swimming, Deliverance & Scuba
Bather Assistance License and/or Lifeguard Certificate and/or Rescue PADI or by other relevant Federation.
Climbing, Mountaineering & Snow
Documented Curriculum of mountaineering and climbing activities, or FASI and/or FISI and/or CAI and/or other relevant Associations.
Navigation at Sea or Inland Waters
Navigation license for sail- and/or motor-boats and/or river crafts (kayak, canoe etc.).
Extreme Sports or Compatible Specialties
Patent, license or certificate, relevant to Extreme Sports compatible with Survival (skydiving, ski mountaineering, paragliding, Canyoning etc.) or enabling to off-road driving (car and/or bikes, other) or equestrian sports (FISA-IFHA).
First Aid Qualifications
Certificate issued by the Red Cross or other competent institutions.
Self-defence and Firearms License
Diploma in Martial Arts (an agonistic curriculum or its equivalent in any sports defence discipline is sufficient) or professional military ranking or Sports firearms or hunting license.
Other Qualifications
Degree or Diploma or Master or Specialisation being useful and complementary in the field of Survival & Outdoor, documented and validated by a University or Professional register or recognised Training Body.

Really Important note: These supplementary qualifications, if copied to FISSS Board Secretary, are going to be reported in the Federal Register, being useful for relevant selection in case of possible commissions to training courses or special events, and for the EU patents.

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